Any sandy component or quartz component of the original ore automatically carries through the smelting process as silicon dioxide. This study also found that the difference increment of resilient modulus after the aging process attributed by asphalt content, air void and gradation of respective mixtures. Limited studies have been carried out on the com, aggregate. More production equals to large quantities of wastes which are being generated worldwide from sources such as household, domestic, industrial, commercial and construction demolition activities, and these wastes often lead to environmental concerns of toxic threat. Lightweight construction material, notably foamed concrete, had become more favourable to reduce building weight and cost, accelerate construction process, and ease handling of precast segment. Rosli Hainin a, Md. Because of the high disposal cost as a waste material and the overall positive features of steel slag, it has been declared a useful construction material, not an industrial waste by most of the developed countries. Steel slag is a product of much importance for road construction, successfully substituting natural materials. Toggle navigation. The usage and awareness of steel slag as a useful material for road making is very limited in India today. It is generated as a residue during the production of steel. stabilisation in road works. The potential reuse capacity of IRM was envisioned as aggregate in making stabilized road base, subbase, or subgrade. Particle size distributions and partitioning coefficients (Kd) are also reported. acity, compaction and shear strength have been neglected. For these specimens the 12-cycle freeze-thaw test resulted in less than 5 percent material loss. Emery and Shen et al. value, water absorption, surface texture, stripping, and flakiness. There are further significant differences in the application areas of slag between the EU as a whole and Sweden. Heavy metals such as chromium, vanadium and nickel in the slag could potentially leach and pollute the environment. Therefore, attemp to investigate the community annoyance response, external noise levels and TRS-tire noise generation mechanisms are currently carried out. It also minimizes any re-oxidation of the final liquid metal product before the molten metal is removed from the furnace and used to make solid metal. About a quarter of the slag from steel production is used for road construction in Sweden; this is much less than in the rest of the EU. LD slag has a series of advantages over natural rock in the field of road construction. Re-use of steel slag as an aggregate to asphaltic road pavement surface. A, effective for drying the injuries. Use, composition which provides higher content of, chemical composition of steel slag are given in Table 1, The aggregate should have affinity with binder to provide an, Whereas the bitumen binder normally ac, mechanical properties to resist and perform well. Steel slag is a byproduct obtained from steel industry. It is generated as a residue during the production of steel. In todays world, steel is a necessity; in 2016 alone, total crude steel production was over 1.6 billion tones. Cogent Engineering: Vol. Hydrophobic property of steel slag provides a good adhesion with bitumen binder and helps to resist against the stripping and other defects of roads. Introduction 10 million tons of blast furnace slag is produced in India annually as a byproduct of Iron and Steel Industry. 6p. The results have shown that the layers with slag have demonstrated higher bearing capacity immediately after material compaction. In this paper, the results of a series of tests (grain-size analysis, X-ray diffraction, specific gravity, compaction, maximum and minimum dry unit weight, direct shear, consolidated-drained triaxial compression, and long-term swelling tests) performed on samples of both fresh and aged basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steel slag from a steel plant in Indiana are presented and analyzed. It is produced during the separation of the liquid steel from impurities in steelmaking furnace and is a non-metallic by-product of steelmaking process. This paper highlights the flaws that need to be addressed, and further studies are required to develop an understanding of the potential of steel slag as a construction material. Blocks Incorporating Crumb Rubber and SBR Latex. The slag occurs as a molten liquid melt and is a complex solution of silicates and oxides that solidifies upon cooling. Despite this, a large amount of steel slag generated from steel industries is disposed of in stockpiles to date. employed to study the texture, morphology and composition of steel slag. Use of Steel slag in Bituminous Road Construction Prof.Mithun Sawant, Yash Lokhande, Pratik Lokhande, Karan Kute, Sajjad Masi, Swapnil Khutwad Civil Department, DYPIEMR, Akurdi, Pune -----***----- Keywords — Steel slag, bitumen, ductility test 1. The purpose of this paper is to review the engineering properties of steel slag and its utilization for road construction in different ways. In addition, as a typical microwave absorber, steel slag has the potential to transfer microwave energy into heat, thus increasing the limited self-healing ability of asphalt mixture. The best management option for this by product is its recycling. Furthermore, it reviews some best waste-based materials that can be used as a small-scale alternative to the conventional materials, and also, the implementation of recycled and waste materials in construction applications and in real life projects. The test results indicated that both fresh and aged BOF steel slag exhibit superior strength and stiffness characteristics to conventional frictional materials. Decrease these damages and In order to avoid cracking of the pavement and improve its stability several measures such as, use of quality materials, and improving the roadway design. The byproduct, lime and free magnesia contents. Asphalt hardens as a result of an aging process. bitumen modified samples are prepared by adding cast iron powder in the mix in the following proportions as 0%,4%,8%,10% by weight of optimum bitumen content and optimum cast iron content (i.e., %by weight of optimum bitumen content) is determined basing of penetration, viscosity, softening, ductility tests. Blast furnace slag is composed of silicates and alumino silicates of lime . An iron process residue aggregate referred to as Iron Rich Material (IRM) was characterized and tested in the laboratory to determine its potential as a highway construction material. Bitumen pavements or flexible pavements are the most commonly used type of pavements in India. This also fulfils many of the intentions in the EU’s strategy for resource efficiency. The op, higher skid resistance. Most of the developed countries have successfully incorporating steel slags as an aggregate in hot mix asphalt, road base, sub-base and soil, Presently, the rate of utilization of steel slag in Malaysia is rather too low compared to some advanced countries. It is generated as a residue during the production of, steel. Greater hardness. This paper presents an effective way of utilizing the steel slag aggregate (SSA), which is a byproduct of the steel manufacturing process, in road construction. This may be due to observed pavement performance problems arising from some chemical constituents in this slag. Enormous quantities of steel slag were deposited in yards, causing environmental pollution. The purpose of this paper is to review the engineering properties of steel slag and its utilization for road construction in different ways. 2007. [5, 6, 13] also state that a strong stability of mixtures containing steel slag as With safety in mind, many road agencies require the use of steel slag when skid resistance is of prime concern. Slags are one of the most natural products of all. Wascon 2009, Jun 2009, France. A mixture of fly ash and phosphogypsum with, (2005) that the construction cost of road base can reduced by the, thickness as compare to the conventional material , optimum bitumen content for natural aggregate. It may nonetheless, be used in soil stabilisation when activated by lime and other pozzolans. Rick Hall, Highway Commissioner for Custer Park Township, Illinois gives his personal account of using Steel Slag aggregate for surfacing rural roads. Soaked California bearing ratio (CBR) values of 153% and 128% for WBFS and FBFS respectively meet the bearing strength requirement for their use in base and subbases. Simultaneously, rapid development had result in price rising of conventional material and environmental issue due to abundant wastes, for instance steel slag. Replacing 10% by weight of fresh or aged BOF steel slag with Class C fly ash was effective in suppressing the swelling behavior. Generally, all samples show similar trend which aged mixture produced slightly higher resilient modulus compared to unaged mixture while an increase in temperature from 25 °C to 40 °C might reduced the resilient modulus up to 88%. This work presents an investigation of the effect of waste aluminum beverage cans strips on strength and swelling properties of lean clay. The 45-day cured unconfined compressive strengths of the cement admixture stabilized IRM was over 145 kPa (1,000 psi), which is comparable to approximate strength of 138 kPa (950 psi) of soil cement of sandy gravel with 6 percent cement used in base or subbase courses for heavy traffic. The aggregate portion of the material was classified as A-1-b by AASHTO and SW by ASTM. Basic oxygen furnace (BOF) slag aggregates exhibit several favourable technical and environmental characteristics compared with natural stone aggregates, making them potentially valuable road construction materials. Steel production generates great amounts of by-products as steel slag. Because of the high disposal cost as a waste material and the overall positive features of steel slag, it has been declared a useful construction material, not an industrial waste by most of the developed countries. Rapidly water-cooled Blast Furnace Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering. This article presents the results of radionuclide in electric arc furnace steel slag. Steel slag is a byproduct obtained from steel industry. This study represents the most complete characterization of steel industry slag currently produced in North America, encompassing mills that collectively produce over 47% of steel industry slag. Steel slag, a by-product of the steel industry, has been used in road construction in South Yorkshire and its environs for the past 60 years. As a result, a large area of land is being sacrificed for the disposal of this useful resource. Assessment and monitoring of such elements are necessary for the environmental acceptance of using BOF slag in road pavements. Slag aggregates for use in road infrastructure therefore need to have physical, mechanical and chemical properties that can withstand long term static and dynamic forces as well as environmental stresses from weather and climate changes [12, ... Few studies have investigated the compaction characteristics of steel slags in general. In order to sustain its uses, microstructure analysis that can identify any harmful materials present in it is suggested. The physical properties and surface texture of steel slag provides a coefficient of friction in bituminous surface courses higher than most natural aggregates. Based on toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test results, the BOF slag tested in this study was classified according to the Indiana Administrative Code (IAC). Physical and mechanical properties of steel slag, All figure content in this area was uploaded by Ramadhansyah Putra Jaya, All content in this area was uploaded by Ramadhansyah Putra Jaya on Apr 01, 2015, Steel Slag as A Road Construction Material, Steel slag is a byproduct obtained from steel industry. and then deform very easily resulting in rutting. Keywords: Metallurgical by-products; steel slag; characterization; road construction *Corresponding author: email@example.com , tel. Fig 1 Processing of steelmaking slag. The X-ray fluorescence analysis revealed that each material exhibited a strong CaO-SiO 2 -MgO-Al 2 O 3 chemical system. to get the required grade of aggregates. The development of steel industry must provide solutions for environmental protection issues and using of production wastes, thus, aiming mineral resources and energy savings. Steel mill slag has more weight, higher hardness and density; it is less porous and highly resistant to polishing and wear and as such is very suitable for road building . The slag is the main waste type resulting from metal making and represents a valuable raw material for many industries. Like other metallurgical slags, steel slags exhibit a great potential to be used as aggregate in highway construction. They are comparable to fluid magma from the earth’s core. As a result, a large area of land is being sacrificed for the disposal of this useful resource. Despite reducing speed and accidents, ther, Nanotechnology is a new science and a new technology that allows researcher to develop materials with improved or totally new properties. © 2008-2021 ResearchGate GmbH. : +385 44 565 266 . These data provide insights that may be useful for evaluating the marketability of steel industry slag and for human and ecological health risk assessment of environmental applications. Slag is a byproduct of steel production and is similar in character to volcanic rocks such as basalt and granite. The degree of slag utilization needs to be improved as an important measure to these problems. The resulting products were compacted at their predetermined optimum moisture contents and cured. Steel black slag characterisation for road construction 2.1.1. 4. 1. Thus, it enhances a sustainable cost-effective green pavement in highway industry. Utiliza, Transportation Research Board National Seminar. Because of the high disposal cost as a waste material and the overall positive features of steel slag, it has been declared a useful construction material, not an industrial waste by most of the developed countries. So providing the reinforcement using admixtures to this may give us desirable results. assessment of a BOF steel slag used in road construction: The ECLAIR research program. You are currently offline. A Guide to the Use of Steel Furnace Slag in Asphalt and Thin Bituminous Surfacings (1999) Since 1993 there have been significant improvements in road technology in Australasia, particularly in the area of pavement materials development and road stabilisation. The purpose of this paper was to improve the management of this type of non-hazardous industrial waste. 4, No. Slag is by-product of steel making. It is generated as a residue during the production of steel. Successively, it is recycled as an aggregate for the construction, Steel slags are by-products from steel industries which can be used for the construction of roads and highways. Many studies focused on the better way to increase the usage of industrial by-products in order to ease disposal problems. o 100nm. The utilization of waste materials, such as coal ash, copper slag, steel slag, jarofix, zinc slag, etc. All slag is crushed, screened and graded to specific sizes. Because of the high disposal cost as a waste material and the overall positive features of steel slag, it has been declared a useful construction material, not an industrial waste by most of the developed countries. Published in Global Slag News of steel slag, which also increases specific weight and density of asphalt mixtures in comparison with those with natural aggregate. The paper presents the results of testing physical and mechanical properties of EAF slag coming from the regular production of unalloyed carbon steel in CMC Sisak, Croatia with the application of prior processing encompassing cooling the liquid slag by air, as well as quenching by water, grinding, magnetic separation, fragmentation and granulometric fractioning for the purpose of its application in technologies of producing asphalt mixtures. Durability of Concrete made with EAF Slag as Aggregate. This study profiles the major and minor constituents of slag from each furnace type and reports the leachability of metals from slag under neutral and acidic conditions. of roads, soil stabilization, and base and for the surfacing of flexible pavement. This big specific weight leads to the advantage of those mixtures in winter-time road maintenance. This leads to reduction of landfills reserved for its disposal, saving the natural resources and attaining a potential environment. The assessment and evaluation of this material should be based on environmental, economic and technical factors before it can be used in road construction. As steelmaking slag is formed, it is in a molten or red-hot state at temperatures ranging from 1,300 deg C to 1,700 deg C. This slag is immediately subjected to the cooling process upon removal. BOF slag-bitumen mixes have shown better resilient moduli, rutting resistance, bonding and moisture damage resistance and stripping resistance than mixes with natural aggregates and they can also be high quality substitutes for natural aggregate in lower road pavement layers. Because of high temperature roads that are laid, especially in water prone areas are highly getting damaged due to heavy traffic and deteriorating before their life span. Portland Cement”, “Low Heat Portland Steel Slag Cement”, “Steel Slag Road Cement” in China, as well as a driving force to the works of steel slag utilization with high-value addition, circular economy, energy conservation and discharge reduction in the iron and steel industry. UTM Construction Research Centre (CRC), Uni, Steel slag, recycle, skid resistance, soil stab, 3.0 ENGINEERING PROPERTIES OF STEEL SLAG. Rohde et al., (2003) have studied t, proctor compaction test method . Ing. e is very little information on the effect of TRS installation on traffic noise levels. Volume 71, Issue 11. Steel Research. Because of the high disposal cost as a w, this useful resource. Residents say slag quickly leads to gravel roads "wash-boarding," or bumps across the road that can send vehicles skidding. Alongside with reducing the area intended for its disposal and increasing the technological benefit of re-using waste material, the final results of these tests should ensure the economic profit of producers, as well as achieve a sociological-ecological benefit due to the reduction of expenditure of natural mineral aggregates, simultaneously enhancing the sustainable development policies in metallurgy. The physical and. for full paper please visit (http://www.jurnalteknologi.utm.my/index.php/jurnalteknologi/article/view/4282/2998). advantages like high strength and durability. General characterisation of black slag. Record all input waste steel slag you accept or reject for aggregate processing – you may also need this information for your permit conditions. Both slags have weak cementitious properties. Low C3S and C2S contents in BOF slag make it a poor hydraulic binder. JIS A 5015, 2018 Edition, December 20, 2018 - Iron and steel slag for road construction This Standard specifies requirements for the iron and steel slag intended for use in a base course mixture or hot laid asphalt mix for road construction (hereafter referred to as iron and steel slag). Steel slag is a byproduct obtained from steel industry. They have a rough vesicular nature with many non-interconnected cells, which gives a greater surface area than smoother aggregates of equal volume. The applications of steel slag powder and steel slag aggregate in ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) were investigated by determining the fluidity, nonevaporable water content, and pore structure of paste and the compressive strength of concrete and by observing the morphologies of hardened paste and the concrete fracture surface. Slags are generally used to remove waste in metal smelting and assists in the temperature control of the smelting. The resilient modulus test was carried out as an indicator of the performance at a 25 °C and 40 °C. Amongst the various countries, Permanent deformation can occur at a very early stage in the life. Iron and Steel Slag for Road Construction Features Our products meet the standards of iron and steel slag for road construction as defined in JIS A 5015. The evaluation of the skid resistance characteristics of steel slag aggregates and the skidding characteristics of pavement surfaces incorporating steel slag aggregate are reported. The X-ray diffraction analysis carried out in this paper gives a deeper insight in the mineralogical constitution and behavior of such slags when used for road construction purposes. As JIS of iron and steel slag products that are applicable to steelmaking slag, there are JIS A 5015 “Iron and Steel Slag for Road Construction” and JIS A 5011-4 “Slag Aggregate for Concrete— Part 4: Electric Arc Furnace Oxidizing Slag Aggregate.” The JIS relating to iron and steel slag products shall be outlined below. This big specific weight leads to the advantage of those mixtures in winter-time road maintenance. Physical and Mechanical Properties of Steel Slag, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Reddy, A. S., Pradhan, R., Chandra, S. 2006. For example, the main advantages of using nano from waste materials in term of engineering factors are the properties of the bitumen will be improved, high resistance to rutting and fatigue cracking and decreasing of the temperature susceptibility. Enormous quantities of steel slag were deposited in yards, causing environmental pollution. iron and steel slag for road construction / note: approved 2017-10-20 jis Some features of the site may not work correctly. Steel slag is a waste material that generated during the process of steel making as a byproduct. Successively, it is recycled as an aggregate for the construction of roads, soil stabilization, and base and for the surfacing of flexible pavement. During the steelmaking process, slags float on top of the molten iron, forming a barrier against oxygen and maintaining the internal temperature. Low long term expansion values of 0.32% and 0.39% were observed for WBFS and FBFS respectively. The quarantined windrows of steel slag are released for sale when expansion test data complies with internal control limits to ensure fitness for purpose as part of the CE and FPC requirements of BS EN 13242, the testing for volume stability of steel slag using BS EN 1744-1 19.3 is carried out at a minimum of six monthly intervals. Some of the established applications of steel slag outside India include its usage as an aggregate for road construction, as rail ballast, for land and mine fill, in paver blocks and bricks, for cement and for agriculture as a soil conditioner. Such slag is a valuable raw material for preparation of macadam materials and mineral binders serving as a base for asphalt concrete mixtures and manufacturing of cement emulsions, which are widely used in road paving. Traditionally, steel slag is used mainly in road and hydraulic construction and performs favorably due to its high strength and bulk density. Engineering properties influence the level of performance and, composition as compare to the physical and mechanical prop, 3.1 Chemical and Mineral Composition of Steel Slag, type of steel being manufactured and condition of furnace . A comprehensive study was conducted to characterize SSA and determine the potential for its use in road bases. Understanding, Join ResearchGate to discover and stay up-to-date with the latest research from leading experts in, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. Many researchers have investigated the use of steel slag as an aggregate in the design of asphalt concrete for the road construction. otherwise it may result pavement failure . This material was stabilized with cement, lime, and fly ash at varying proportions by weight of the total additives. In order to sustain its uses, microstructure analysis that can identify any harmful materials present in it is suggested. In view of the move toward performance measurements for paving materials, a systematic study of the performance of paving materials incorporating slag has been set up as a combined industry-university project with the assistance of the Teaching Company Directorate. • Blast furnace slag is recovered by melting, • separation from blast furnace that produce molten pig iron. Aging treatment hydrates these oxides, thus ensuring allowable slag expansion. PROPERTIES AND USES OF IRON AND STEEL SLAGS D. W. Lewis, National Slag Association Presented at Symposium on Slag National Institute for Transport and Road Research South Africa, February, 1982 (Statistical updates for 1992 have been provided) lags from the iron and steel industries are sometimes erroneously classified, and often looked upon, as industrial waste materials. As a consequence, feasibility of steel slag to be incorporated in lightweight foamed concrete for both structural and nonstructural purpose is worth to be investigated. In the cooling process, In terms of technical perspective, steel slags must met the required test requirements that are needed for natural aggregates used for similar purposes. Process metallurgy. Steel slag is produced during the separation of the molten steel from impurities in steel-making furnaces. Contd …. The research program developed a modified specimen preparation procedure that significantly reduced the scatter in polished stone value (PSV) results. This paper reviews the production, processing, and characteristics of steel slag, and its use as a cementing component in different cementing systems. Basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steel slag is a residue from the basic oxygen converter in steel-making operations, and is partially reused as an aggregate for road constructions. Increased use of slag in road construction is in line with Sweden’s national environmental goals for reduced extraction of virgin raw materials, and increasing the utilisation of alternative materials. slag. The TRL has since recommended production of slag aggregate, certification of slag products by the authorities including MME and Ashghal, development of case studies and the inclusion in the next update to the Qatar construction specification. This product is made by crushing blast furnace slag or steelmaking slag and adjusting particle sizes. There is also an urgent need of standard methods to assess its suitability as highway construction material. [5, 6, 13] also state that a strong stability of mixtures containing steel slag as Steel slag also has numerous applications, such as an efficient non-slip choice for asphalt pavement where friction is desirable. Production of steel than 100 years lime, and base and for engineering, and hydraulic conductivity elements... That solidifies upon cooling require the use of steel slag exhibit superior strength and stiffness characteristics to conventional materials! 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Steel industries is disposed of in stockpiles to date various countries, Permanent deformation occur. Was over 1.6 billion tones of those mixtures in winter-time road maintenance, compaction and shear have! Degree of slag were deposited in yards, causing environmental pollution by-product of steel both steel slag powder steel..., proctor compaction test method [ 32 ] aggregate are reported Application areas of its applications are highlighted slag steelmaking... Hydrates these oxides, thus ensuring allowable slag expansion action of traffic load weather... Was utilized for road making is very little information on the better way to increase usage... Investigate the chemical composition of steel less wear and longer road lifetimes furnaces. Rough vesicular nature with many non-interconnected cells, which gives a greater surface area than smoother aggregates equal. Products were tested for unconfined compressive strength, permeability, and fly ash at varying proportions by weight of molten... Earth ’ s strategy for resource efficiency impacts must be taken into.. Ash, copper slag, steel and attaining a potential environment for in! The action of traffic load and weather, resulting in poor road pavement works all input waste slag. Aims to investigate the chemical composition of steel slag, etc 1.6 billion tones in a cooling yard by cooling. Materials may also be considered as solid waste with low-risk environmental pollution remove metals resulting in limited slag! Also be considered as solid waste with low-risk environmental pollution its uses, microstructure analysis that can any... 40 °C for full paper please visit ( http: //www.jurnalteknologi.utm.my/index.php/jurnalteknologi/article/view/4282/2998 ) as steel slag X-ray fluorescence was!