hitting the brakes when the light turns red. This situation is: The second stage of childbirth begins with the _______ and ends with the _______. Mary Ainsworth would most likely classify Jermaine as: According to psychiatrists Alexander Chess and Stella Thomas, a(n) _____ child has a low activity level, is somewhat negative, and displays a low intensity of mood. Jerome Kagan (2002) has studied the temperamental category of inhibition to the unfamiliar in children. Which of the following statements is TRUE? How does Goodness of Fit play into temperament? Which of the following statements regarding first words is NOT correct? One reason that leisure is important in middle adulthood is that: it prepares middle-aged adults for retirement. I purchased Jerome Kagan and Nancy Snidman's book (The Long Shadow of Temperament) to find out. Paternal interactions usually center on child-care activities, such as feeding, changing diapers, and bathing. Evette asked her mother, "Doesn't he know he looks stupid?" A criticism of attachment theory is that: other factors may be more important to an infant's adaptations to life. This substage is apparent in children between about 1 month to 4 months of age. he overemphasized autonomy and self-discovered learning. Surveys can be conducted in person, over the telephone, or on the Internet. The lack of ______ in maternal nutrition has been associated with neural tube defects in offspring. Two primary schemes are apparent. According to Bowlby's conceptualization of attachment, which phase is Anthony currently in? He uses the caregiver as a secure base from which to explore the room. Women engage in fewer high-risk behaviors. 1. Obviously Ben and his grandmother do not share the same ideas about __________. The _________ approach emphasizes life events and mediating factors to help explain individual development. In the game peek-a-boo, the mother initially covers the baby. Ben's grandmother gives him a shirt that she knows he has been admiring. Both Allen and Jan will be better able to use the divorce as a way to make positive changes in their lives than they could have several years ago. Over the past 15 years, the percentage of older people living in poverty has held steady at about _______. When Kagan was reviewing the material collected in childhood and adulthood, he found that the first three years in c… Studies conducted in 2006 revealed that approximately _________ retired Americans return to work after they have retired. The United States currently allows up to _____ weeks of _____ leave for caring for a newborn. 1. According to Jerome Kagan, temperament: A) is the result of inherited physiological characteristics; however, temperament can be modified to some degree by the environment. Introversion is a "very deep character trait," according to Harvard University psychology professor Jerome Kagan, Ph.D. -- and a valuable one. Quimby is engaging in: Which concept helps the infant to understand that other people have intentions? how important are habits obtained during the adolescent egocentrism stage in forming our lasting personality? Diego is in the Strange Situation with his caregiver; he explores the room and examines the toys that have been placed in it. A researcher is interested in the effect of exercise on stamina in elderly patients. Okay." How is temperament a precursor to personality? By definition, evolutionary psychology emphasizes the importance of: A recessive gene can only assert itself when: A psychological perspective that emphasizes the importance of adaptation, reproduction, and "survival of the fittest" in shaping behavior. In which aspect is this sophistication and insight reflected? Mary Ainsworth would most likely classify Cameron as: The view or model that emphasizes the ways development is the result of an ongoing, bidirectional interchange between heredity and the environment is the: Lillian is in those "terrible twos" where she wants to do everything herself. In their longitudinal investigation, Chess and Thomas found that _____ of the children they studied could be classified as difficult. Tony seldom sleeps or eats by any predictable routine, and he really dislikes any new situation. List (in order) Jean Piaget's six substages of sensorimotor thought. is minimally influenced by inherited physiological characteristics but is primarily the result of environmental input. This is a prenatal medical procedure where high-frequency sound waves are directed into the women's abdomen. This is an example of a: Jean Piaget used detailed observation of his own children to develop his theory of: Which of the following has been associated with children's vocabulary development? Sylvia has severe cystic acne and is taking Accutane, a drug prescribed by her doctor. According to Costa and McCrae's study on adult personality development, in early adulthood _________ INCREASES. "I did it myyyyy way," the singer crooned. Michelle is typical of middle-aged person in her ability to remember information. A _______ is an internal sensory image or word that represents an event. In the first six months infants show the emotions of: Which of the following is a characteristic of reciprocal socialization? Jerome Kagan: I had been sensitive because of the study of day care to the fact that some children when they encounter something new, unfamiliar, not … Infants show _____ when they are in familiar settings. 11. She notices that Devin is amazingly patient and seems to be distracting himself by playing with his socks. Sidney is most likely in the ________ month of her pregnancy. Which of the following statements about infants and REM sleep is TRUE? Will Jawhara's baby be significantly affected by all the stress in Jawhara's life? Their child will have a: Don and Ellie are trying to conceive a baby. Larry is a normal 45-year-old male. It is most likely that Joey will develop a(n) _____ with his mother. Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky considered play to be valuable because: it advances the child's cognitive development. He looked at whether or not early experiences affected the participants' future personalities, talents and characters. the child's genetic characteristics and temperament. Rules governing the meaning of words and sentences. social support, medical technology, cognitive training and support. After Sally was born, she was placed into an environment with two parents who smoked. You are visiting Chile on your vacation. Angie may be experiencing the middle-age decline in her: Diabetes is to Latinos as __________ is to African Americans. That makes him smile and make sounds, which Janice imitates as she gently takes the toy back. Shoko responds positively to being picked up by others, and when put back down freely moves away to play. The receiving of information from the surrounding environment is called __________. Her doctor told her that she should: Sidney is expecting her first child. When he opens her gift, he smiles and says, "This is so sick; thanks Gram!!" This French obstetrician developed the prepared childbirth method. Heather immediately moves as fast as she can to her grandmother (who is her primary caregiver). According to Bowlby's conceptualization of attachment, Heather is not in: Erik Erikson describes the second stage of personality development as the stage of _____ versus shame and doubt. He also displays extreme fearfulness around the caregiver. What have been found to be the two most important contributors to height differences among children worldwide? REM sleep may promote the brain's development in infancy. Although their level of activity often aggravates their parents, we know that this activity will: help the boys develop gross motor skills. The awareness of one's own mental processes and the mental processes of others. establishment of the Social Security system in 1935. Briefly explain the cephalocaudal and proximodistal patterns of development. Her daughter, Susan, contacts various agencies to line up a home health aid, transportation to medical appointments and Meals-On-Wheels. Loss of bone mass is associated with _______. Charlotte is watching her son, Devin, get teased by his older brother. You look at the child and think that he looks normal; then you suddenly remember what you learned in a life-span development class and conclude that the child must have: The ways that words are combined to form acceptable phrases and sentences in a language. At birth, the newborn's brain is about __________ of its adult weight. This is an example of: An infant's ability to crawl, walk, and eventually run is called: In the Strange Situation, Jermaine used his mother as a "safe base" as he actively explored the playroom. This is an example of _______. Sarah tells you that her condition is due to a birth defect. The most frequent expression of an infant's fear involves: When one-month-old Mai is sleeping, it often looks like she is smiling. Myelination has the effect of increasing the speed and the efficiency of information traveling through the nervous system. One of the conclusions from this analysis was that the only individual characteristic to remain stable across the developmental period under study was shy, timid behavior as opposed to outgoing, s… Mary has likely received brain damage to: Rules governing the sound system of language, including the sounds that are used and how they may be combined. What does a child get from peers that he or she typically cannot get from siblings? The cephalocaudal pattern is the sequence in which the greatest growth always occurs at the top—the head—with physical growth in size, weight, and feature differentiation gradually working its way down from top to bottom. Roger is 35 years old and has been married for 9 years. Discuss Temperament. To ensure the best experience, please update your browser. He followed his test subjects from infancy through adulthood, evaluating specific traits at different periods. Which of the following is NOT a criticism of Vygotsky's theory? According to Jerome Kagan, temperament: is the result of inherited physiological characteristics; however, temperament can be modified to some degree by the environment. Behaviorism was popular at the beginning of Kagan's career, but Kagan's research led him to believe that environment wasn't the sole determining factor of a child's personality, and he began to examine the influence of biological factors. She has just recently begun to feel kicking movements. The average adult in middle adulthood __________ height and __________ weight. In which of the following situations will nine-month-old Lucy show the LEAST stranger anxiety? Myelination is related to a number of abilities in children, including hand-eye coordination. The Apgar Scale uses which of the following measures? Why is life expectancy for women longer than for men? The teacher acts as a facilitator rather than a director of learning. Jerome Kagan has shown that this bias of temperament is largely innate and predisposes the infant toward responding differently to novelty. Jerome Kagan, Harvard University, Department of Psychology, Cambridge, MA 02138; e‐mail: JK@WJH.HARVARD.edu. Second, after accidentally causing an interesting event with one's own body (e.g., kicking feet), the infant repeats the action many times. At the end of the program, their stamina is measured by seeing how long they can walk comfortably on a treadmill. In the Strange Situation, Quentin cries mildly when his caregiver departs; however, he is happy upon reunion, and then continues to explore once the caregiver has returned. The developmental issue (controversy) over the degree to which early traits and characteristics persist throughout life or change. These are questions that psychologist Jerome Kagan is interested in. Forty-five-year-old Angie loves going to the symphony, but she has been complaining that lately the quality of the symphony is not as good as it was a few years ago. Developmentally appropriate practices at the kindergarten level are likely to be: Define and discuss one effect of myelination. By 15 months, French fries were the most common vegetable that babies ate. Jerome Kagan's classification of temperament focuses on: Which of the following statements regarding paternal caregiving is FALSE? Child Development, February 1997, Volume 68, Number 1, Pages 139-143 Temperament and the Reactions to Unfamiliarity Jerome Kagan The behavioral reactions to unfamiliar events are basic phenomena in all vertebrates. Jerome Kagan and other developmentalists stress that _____ play(s) more important roles in a child's social competence than the attachment theorists, such as Bowlby and Ainsworth, are willing to acknowledge. Briefly describe the characteristics of the Montessori and child-centered kindergarten approaches to early childhood education. She is often tired and tends to respond to his needs in an angry, irritable fashion. discuss the 4 parenting styles and how they affect children? Infants recognize their name by age 3 months. Especially in infancy, emotions play important roles in: _____ has been the most consistent predictor of a secure attachment. An adult in middle age will do most POORLY on which of the following tasks? Jerome Kagan. Children become aware that rules and laws are created by people. Name one advantage and one disadvantage of using surveys as a way to collect data. 1. It turns out that it isn't about introverts and extraverts, nor does it… When she meets another nine-month-old baby at her home. Kagan spent a large part of his career studying the effect of temperament— a stable pattern of personality and emotional reactions —on the behavior of children. Use this lesson to get a better understanding of these objectives: Define temperament Remembering where you went on vacation last summer is an example of _______ memory. Children are more likely to experience poor-quality child care if their parents have few resources. This is an example of: Two-month-old Trey is crying loudly. Jerome Kagan (1984) puts forward an alternative explanation for the correlation between early attachment types and later development with the Temperament Hypothesis. explain the biological reasons that adolescents and young adults frequuently get less sleep than is necessary. Compared with earlier and later periods, middle age is influenced most by _________ factors. Jerome Kagan's classification of temperament focuses on: When parents select and attend to certain behaviors, initially demonstrating them for their child, then gradually turning over more of the responsibility for the behavior to the child, the parents are engaging in: Kyoko and Jason are going to have a child. This adaptive interaction demonstrates the role of emotions in: Babies' first forms of emotional communication, particularly with parents, are: Researchers are discovering that infants are more socially sophisticated and insightful at younger ages than scholars previously envisioned. Jerome Kagan’s “Aha!” moment came with Baby 19. All of the following have been identified has ways in which the aging brain adapts EXCEPT: Gisella has just returned from the doctor and was told she has cloudy areas in the lenses of her eyes. Which of the following terms is used to describe the mutually regulated interactions between parents and infants? Parents time interactions in such a way that the infant experiences turn-taking with the parents. His first boo… Which theory of adult development might this singer prefer? For eyes, brown color is dominant and blue color is recessive. Katrina is exhibiting which of the following types of moral reasoning? She has a regular routine but can readily adapt to changes. Discuss what accounts for these differences. According to Jerome Kagan (2002, 2003), temperament: is the result of inherited physiological characteristics; however, temperament can be modified to some degree by the environment. A prenatal test designed to assess whether a fetus is developing normally. Provides Individuals with the capacity to explore the social world confidentality. Eight-month-old Michael is placed in front of a mirror with a spot of rouge on his nose. Newborns do not respond to the crying of other babies. It is a bag or envelope that contains a clear fluid in which the developing embryo floats. When people become parents through pregnancy, adoption, or stepparenting, they face _____ and must adapt. an idea of how the child compares with other children the same age. Research conducted by Robins and others (2002) on the self-esteem of different age groups is considered what type of research? How does lack of sleep effect overall functioning. Kagan argues that this correlation can be explained by the infant’s innate temperament. Older adults have more negative emotions than younger adults. How long should they wait before they suspect infertility? For most people, speech and grammar is localized in the left hemisphere, and the use of metaphor and humor is localized in the right hemisphere. When toddlers hear their parents quarreling, they. The external stimulus is typically a face, in the case of young infants. A decreased responsiveness to a stimulus that has been repeatedly presented. In the Strange Situation, Latoya basically ignored her mother, was not upset when she left the room, and did not seek her out when she returned. Which of the following is NOT a culture-based resource for older adults? Research would suggest that her child may: The process by which the uterus returns to its prepregnant size 5 to 6 weeks after birth. Cohabitation is increasing among ________ and is expected to continue to increase. Betty and Allen's child, Cara, is usually in a pleasant mood. Which of the following statements about older adults and sexuality is NOT true? Temperament can be completely altered by the environment. completing a set number of tasks in a specific time. The proximodistal pattern is the sequence in which growth starts at the center of the body and moves toward the extremities. As Sally continued to develop, she was diagnosed with asthma, a breathing disorder. Paul's reaction to having a decline in his ability to hear it is: Sex education for elderly people has been found to: increase sexual activity among the elderly. In the Strange Situation, Latoya basically ignored her mother, was not upset when she left the room, and did not seek her out when she returned. Cohabitation for this age group may be based on a need for companionship and a legal sharing of resources without finances being legally joined. Infants instinctively direct their attachment to human figures. The Strange Situation is an observational measure of infant attachment developed by Mary Ainsworth. Which of the following is likely? Although she would like to be married, there is no special person in her life right now. The macrosystem is defined as the culture in which an individual lives. According to Jerome Kagan (2002, 2003), temperament can be classified by focusing on: differences between children who are considered easy and those considered more difficult. Nakita is eight months old, and she has a tendency to cry when strangers come near her. Quimby relaxes when she sees her mother smiling and speaking to the stranger in a calm voice. Temperament, Anxiety, and Guilt" Jerome Kagan, Ph.D., is Professor of Psychology at Harvard University and Director of Harvard's interdisciplinary Mind, Brain, and Behavior Initiative. By Amy Novotney. 1st borns -> More mature, ^ Self Control, more guilty & anxiety. B) is the result of inherited physiological characteristics and cannot be modified by the environment. According to Erikson, if Lincoln remains in this situation for a long time he will develop: Feelings that occur when a person is in a state or an interaction that is important to him or her, especially to his or her well-being, are known as: Anthony is just starting to crawl and has taken to following his mother around the house. why does this stage exsist? When an infant puts her thumb in her mouth to help soothe herself, the infant is exhibiting: the ability to inhibit or minimize the intensity and duration of emotional reactions. It draws on the three decades of research done by Kagan on the topic of human temperament. According to psychologist Jerome Kagan, differences in temperament between Chinese & American children suggest a cultures's philosophical outlook may be related to ___ factors. Professor Weinstein is taking a(n): __________ approach. He would be classified as: In the Strange Situation, Cameron did not explore the playroom, clung to his mother when she was in the room, and was very upset when she left the room. 1. Hannah knows that her infant son, William, has a difficult temperament. A study of mother-infant dyads from age seven months to two years found that maternal sensitivity and autonomy predicted: According to a recent meta-analysis, secure attachment in infancy was linked to: social competence with peers in childhood. Maribel's mother needs more services to allow her to continue to live in her own home. What percentage of Americans considers themselves to be religious? Marty is developing rapidly in her size and abilities to sit and stand. Senior Odyssey is a 20-week program designed to: improve problem-solving skills in older adults. According to Erikson, Lillian is exploring: What is the opinion of experts on infant socioemotional development, such as Jerome Kagan, on the infant's capacity to display emotions like guilt, pride, despair, shame, empathy, and jealousy in the first year? ________ memory refers to facts we consciously know, and ________ memory refers to memory without conscious recollection. is the result of inherited physiological characteristics; however, temperament can be modified to some degree by the environment. Infants exposed to unfamiliarity reacted strongly to the stimuli and cried loudly, pumped their limbs, and had an increased heart rate. According to a 2006 study of discipline and corrective methods used by parents, which of the following methods did not increase when comparing the ways parents disciplined a one-year-old to that used on a two-year-old? Quimby, age 15 months, looks to her mother to see if she should be afraid of the stranger who has come to her home. He also lifts his arms up to her when he wants to be picked up. Daniel and Guadalupe are angry with one another because of differences in their spending habits. Research suggests that mothers who drink more than 300 milligrams of caffeine a day increase their unborn baby's risk of: Annabel drinks about two cups of brewed coffee a day. Monitor Staff December 2008, Vol 39, No. The inability to distinguish between one's own perspective and someone else's perspective is known as _______. It looks like your browser needs an update. When his son suggests that he may have a hearing problem, Paul says that he does not and that the volume is "just right." According to Jean Piaget, a scheme that is characterized by the infant attempting to reproduce a bodily event (e.g., kicking own feet) that initially occurred by chance. Eventually, the baby takes the rattle, holds it for a few seconds, and then holds it out to her mother and smiles. According to Bowlby's conceptualization of attachment, Trevor is in _____. According to Jay Belsky's description of family interactions, this situation is an example of: an indirect influence of the marital relationship on the child. With this procedure, high-frequency sound waves are directed into the women's abdomen. It is a sudden long, initial loud cry followed by breath holding. He would be classified as: While it is true that most parents have rushed their two- or three-year-olds by doing something for them, according to Erikson, the real risk of developing _____ comes when children are constantly told and shown all the things they broke, messed up, or did wrong while trying to do things on their own. Which of the following is TRUE of social smiling? According to Bowlby's conceptualization of attachment, which of the following occurs during phase three? _____ refers to the match between a child's temperament and the environmental demands the child must cope with. Parenting styles are a negotiation between: Play therapy is used for all of the following reasons: 1. When they are together, they often wrestle, run, race, push, and shove each other. Her youngest daughter is showing: Trevor has clearly bonded with his mother, and at a recent family gathering he seemed to recognize family members he often interacts with. Twenty-four-month-old Tyler is placed in front of a mirror with a spot of rouge on his nose. In his most probing and expansive work to date, Jerome Kagan—one of this country’s leading psychologists—demonstrates that innovative research methods in the behavioral sciences and neurobiology, together with a renewed philosophical commitment to rigorous empiricism, are transforming our understanding of human behavior.Contemporary psychology, according to Kagan, has been …